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Saba and Sabeans - This Saba (Sheba) must not be confounded with Saba (Seba) in Ethiopia of Is., xliii, 3; xlv, 14. It lies in the Southern Arabian Jof about 200 miles northwest of Aden Sabaoth - In Hebrew, plural form of 'host' or 'army'. The word is used almost exclusively in conjunction with the Divine name as a title of majesty: 'the Lord of Hosts', or 'the Lord God of Hosts' Sabbatarians, Sabbatarianism - Defines Sabbatarianism as a rigorist conflation of the Christian Sunday with the Jewish Sabbath, devotes attention to Seventh-Day Sabbatarianism as well Sabbath - The seventh day of the week among the Hebrews, the day being counted from sunset to sunset, that is, from Friday evening to Saturday evening Sabbatical Year - The seventh year, devoted to cessation of agriculture, and holding in the period of seven years a place analogous to that of the Sabbath in the week; also called 'Year of Remission' Sabbatine Privilege - The name Sabbatine Privilege is derived from the apocryphal Bull 'Sacratissimo uti culmine' of John XXII, 3 March, 1322 Sabina, Saint - Martyr in 126 or 127, at Rome Sabinianus, Pope - Reigned 604-606. The son of Bonus, he was born at Blera (Bieda) near Viterbo. In 593 he was sent by St. Gregory I as apocrisiarius or Apostolic nuncio to Constantinople; but in some respects his administration of the office did not come up to Gregory's expectations Sacramentals - In instituting the sacraments Christ did not determine the matter and form down to the slightest detail, leaving this task to the Church, which should determine what rites were suitable in the administration of the sacraments. These rites are indicated by the word Sacramentalia, the object of which is to manifest the respect due to the sacrament and to secure the sanctification of the faithful Sacraments - Presents the necessity, the nature, the origin and cause, the number, the effects, the minister, and the recipient of the Sacraments Sacred Heart of Jesus, Devotion to the - Description, spiritual significance, and historical background of devotion to the Sacred Heart Sacred Heart of Jesus, Society of the - An institution of religious women, taking perpetual vows and devoted to the work of education Sacrifice - This term is identical with the English offering (Latin offerre) and the German Opfer Sacrifice of the Mass - The word Mass (missa) first established itself as the general designation for the Eucharistic Sacrifice in the West after the time of Pope Gregory the Great, the early Church having used the expression the 'breaking of bread' (fractio panis) or 'liturgy' Sacrilege - The violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object. In a less proper sense any transgression against the virtue of religion would be a sacrilege Sacris Solemniis - The opening words of the hymn for Matins of Corpus Christi and of the Votive Office of the Most Blessed Sacrament, composed by St. Thomas Aquinas Sacristan - An officer who is charged with the care of the sacristy, the church, and their contents. In ancient times many duties of the sacristan were performed by the doorkeepers (ostiarii), later by the mansionarii and the treasurers Sacristy - A room in the church or attached thereto, where the vestments, church furnishings and the like, sacred vessels, and other treasures are kept, and where the clergy meet and vest for the various ecclesiastical functions Sadducees - A politico-religious sect of the Jews during the late post-Exile and New-Testament period. The old derivation of the name from tsaddiqim, i.e. the righteous; with assumed reference to the adherence of the Sadducees to the letter of the Law as opposed to the pharasaic attention to the superadded 'traditions of the elders', is now generally discredited Sahagún, Bernardino de - Missionary and Aztec archeologist, b. at Sahagun, Kingdom of Leon, Spain, in or before the year 1500; d. at Mexico, 23 Oct., 1590 Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre - This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the feast of St. Bartholomew), and in the provinces of France during the ensuing weeks, and it has been the subject of knotty historical disputes Saint Benedict, Medal of - A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict Saint-Denis, Abbey of - Situated in a small town to which it has given its name, about four miles north of Paris Saint George, Orders of - Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as mutually independent bodies having nothing in common but the veneration of St. George, the patron of knighthood Saint James of Compostela, Order of - Founded in the twelfth century, owes its name to the national patron of Spain, St. James the Greater Saint-John, Ambrose - Oratorian; b. 1815; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 24 May, 1875; son of Henry St. John, descended from the Barons St. John of Bletsoe Saint John - Diocese in the Province of New Brunswick, Canada Saint Louis (Missouri) - Created a diocese 2 July, 1826; raised to the rank of an archdiocese 20 July, 1847 Saint Paul (Minnesota) - Archdiocese comprising the counties of Ramsey, Hennepin, Chisago, Anoka, Dakota, Scott, Wright, Rice, Lesueur, Carver, Nicollet, Sibley, Meeker, Redwood, Renville, Kandiyohi, Lyon, Lincoln, Yellow Medicine, Lac-Qui-Parle, Chippewa, Swift, Goodhue, Big Stone, and Brown, which stretch across the State of Minnesota from east to west, in about the center of its southern half Saint Paul-without-the Walls - An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the great Apostle in the Via Ostia was marked by a cella memoriae, near which the Catacomb of Comodilla was established Saint Peter, Basilica of - The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the first century the gardens of Agrippina lay Saint Peter, Tomb of - The history of the confusion and conflicting authorities surrounding the location of the tomb of Saint Peter Saint-Simon and Saint-Simonism - Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, was born in Paris, 17 Oct., 1760; died there, 19 May, 1825. He belonged to the family of the author of the 'Memoirs' Saint-Sulpice, Society of - Founded at Paris by M. Olier (1642) for the purpose of providing directors for the seminaries established by him Saint Vincent de Paul, Society of - International association of Catholic laymen engaging in personal service of the poor Sainte Anne d'Auray - A little village three miles from the town of Auray, in the Diocese of Vannes, famous for its sanctuary and for its pilgrimages, or pardons, in honour of St. Anne Sainte Anne de Beaupré - Devotion to Saint Anne, in Canada Saints, Canonization of - According to some writers the origin in the Catholic Church is to be traced back to the ancient pagan apotheosis Saints, Communion of - The doctrine expressed in the second clause of the ninth article in the received text of the Apostles' Creed: 'I believe... the Holy Catholic Church, the Communion of Saints' Saints, Legends of the - The legenda are stories about the saints, and often include a mix of historical fact and unhistorical embellishments Salamis, Epiphanius of - Biographical article on the fourth-century monk and bishop Salesian Society, The - Founded by Saint John Bosco, takes its distinctive name from its patron, Saint Francis de Sales Salle, Saint John Baptist de la - Essay on the founder of the Christian Brothers Salome - Daughter of Herod Philip and Herodias at whose request John the Baptist was beheaded Salt - Always used for the seasoning of food and for the preservation of things from corruption, had from very early days a sacred and religious character Salvation - Salvation has in Scriptural language the general meaning of liberation from straitened circumstances or from other evils, and of a translation into a state of freedom and security Salve Regina - The opening words (used as a title) of the most celebrated of the four Breviary anthems of the Blessed Virgin Mary Salzburg - The Archdiocese of Salzburg is conterminous with the Austrian crown-land of the same name Samaria - A titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palestine Prima. In the sixth year of his reign (about 900 B. C.) Amri, King of Israel, laid the foundations of the city to which he gave the name of Samaria, 'after the name of Semer the owner of the hill' Samson - Most famous of the Judges of Israel Samuel, First and Second Books of - Known as the First and Second Books of Kings in the Authorized Version, in the Hebrew editions and the Protestant versions these are known as 1st and 2nd Samuel, with the Third and Fourth Books of Kings being styled First and Second Books of Kings Sanctifying Grace - Treatise on this fundamental building block of Christianity Sanctity - Explains the meaning of the term 'sanctity' as employed in somewhat different senses in relation to God, to individual men, and to a corporate body Sanctuary - A consecrated place of refuge Sanctuary - Church architecture term Sanctus - The Sanctus is the last part of the Preface in the Mass, sung in practically every rite by the people (or choir). One of the elements of the liturgy of which exists the earliest evidence San Francisco - Archdiocese established 29 July 1853 to include multiple counties in the State of California, U.S.A Sanhedrin - The supreme council and court of justice among the Jews Santa Casa di Loreto - Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the 'Holy House' of Loreto has been numbered among the most famous shrines of Italy Sara - Wife of Abraham and also his step-sister Sarto, Andrea del - Artist - Born at Florence in 1486; d. there in 1531 Sarum Rite - The manner of regulating the details of the Roman Liturgy that obtained in pre-Reformation times in the south of England and was thence propagated over the greater part of Scotland and of Ireland Saskatchewan and Alberta - The twin provinces of the Canadian West, so called because they were formed on the same day Satan - The name commonly given to the fallen angels, who are also known as demons. With the article (ho) it denotes Lucifer, their chief, as in Matthew 25:41, 'the Devil and his angels' Saul - First king of Israel Savonarola, Girolamo - Dominican reformer. Born at Ferrara, 21 September, 1452; died at Florence, 23 May, 1498 Saxe-Coburg and Gotha - One of the Saxon-Thuringian duchies Saxony - Chronology of the area and the people Scala Sancta (Holy Stairs) - Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition the staircase leading once to the praetorium of Pilate at Jerusalem, hence sanctified by the footsteps of Our Lord during his Passion Scalimoli - Theologian, better known by his religious name, Anrea di Castellana Scandal - A word or action evil in itself, which occasions another's spiritual ruin Scapular - The most important part, of the habit of the monastic orders Scaramelli, Giovanni Battista - Ascetical writer, b. at Rome, 24 Nov., 1687; d. at Macerata, 11 Jan., 1752 Scepticism - Etymology of the word based on a Greek term meaning 'speculation, doubt' Schall von Bell, Johann Adam - An especially prominent figure among the missionaries to China, b. of an important family at Cologne in 1591; d. at Peking, 15 Aug., 1666 Scheeben, Matthias Joseph - Theological writer of acknowledged merit, born at Meckenheim near Bonn, 1 March, 1835; died at Cologne, 21 July, 1888 Scherer, Georg - Pulpit orator and controversialist, b. at Schwaz, in the Tyrol, 1540, according to Duhr; d. at Linz, 30 Nov., 1605; entered the Society of Jesus in 1559 Schism - In the language of theology and canon law, the rupture of ecclesiastical union and unity Schism, Eastern - From the time of Diotrephes (III John 1:9-10) there have been continual schisms, of which the greater number were in the East Schism, Western - Only a temporary misunderstanding, even though it compelled the Church for forty years to seek its true head; it was fed by politics and passions, and was terminated by the assembling of the councils of Pisa and Constance Schola Cantorum - A place for the teaching and practice of ecclesiastical chant, or a body of singers banded together for the purpose of rendering the music in church Scholasticism - A term used to designate both a method and a system. It is applied to theology as well as to philosophy Schönborn - The name of a German noble family, many members of which were prelates of the Church Schools - History and development of education as related to the church Schubert, Franz - Composer (1797-1829) Schwann, Theodor - German physiologist and founder of the theory of the cellular structure of animal organisms; b. at Neuss, 7 December, 1810; d. Cologne, 11 January, 1882 Science and the Church - Dicsusses the relationship between the two subjects Scotism and Scotists - Article on the school of philosophy inspired by John Duns Scotus, and its proponents in the fourteenth through nineteenth centuries Scotland - The northern portion of the Island of Great Britain Scotland, Established Church of - The religious organization which has for three centuries and a half claimed the adherence of the majority of the inhabitants of Scotland, may be said to date from August 1560 Scotus, Blessed John Duns - Called 'Doctor Subtilis,' Franciscan, philosopher, d. 1308 Scribes - In the New-Testament period the scribes were the professional interpreters of the Law in the Jewish synagogues Scriptorium - A large room set apart in a monastery for the use of the scribes or copyists of the community Scripture - Sacred Scripture is one of the several names denoting the inspired writings which make up the Old and New Testament Scruple - An unfounded apprehension and consequently unwarranted fear that something is a sin which, as a matter of fact, is not Scrutiny - Definitions for the term as variously employed in canon law Sculpture - In the widest sense of the term, sculpture is the art of representing in bodily form men, animals, and other objects in stone, bronze, ivory, clay and similar materials Seal - The use of a seal by men of wealth and position was common before the Christian era. It was natural then that high functionaries of the Church should adopt the habit as soon as they became socially and politically important Seal of Confession, the Law of the - 'Let the priest who dares to make known the sins of his penitent be deposed....' Sebastian, Saint - Article on this Roman martyr of the late third or early fourth century Secret - The prayer said in a low voice by the celebrant at the end of the Offeratory in the Roman Liturgy Secret, Discipline of the - A theological term used to express the custom which prevailed in the earliest ages of the Church, by which the knowledge of the more intimate mysteries of the Christian religion was carefully kept from the heathen and even from those who were undergoing instruction in the Faith Sect and Sects - Etymology and meaning of the word 'sect' Secularism - A term used for the first time about 1846 by George Jacob Holyoake to denote 'a form of opinion which concerns itself only with questions, the issues of which can be tested by the experience of this life' Secularization - An authorization given to religious with solemn vows and by extension to those with simple vows to live for a time or permanently in the 'world' Secular Clergy - The secular cleric makes no profession and follows no religious rule Sedia Gestatoria - The Italian name of the portable papal throne used on certain solemn occasions in the pontifical ceremonies Seduction - The inducing of a previously virtuous woman to engage in unlawful sexual intercourse Self-Defense - The right of a private person to employ force against any one who unjustly attacks his life or person, his property or good name Semiarians and Semiarianism - A name frequently given to the conservative majority in the East in the fourth century as opposed to the strict Arians Seminary, Ecclesiastical - The word seminary (Fr. seminaire, Ger. Seminar) is sometimes used, especially in Germany, to designate a group of university students devoted to a special line of work. The same word is often applied in England and the United States to young ladies' academies, Protestant or Catholic Semipelagianism - A doctrine of grace advocated by monks of Southern Gaul at and around Marseilles after 428 Semites - The term Semites is applied to a group of peoples closely related in language, whose habitat is Asia and partly Africa Seneca Indians - The westernmost and largest of the five tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy of central and western New York Sentence - In canon law, the decision of the court upon any issue brought before it Septimius Severus - Founder of the African dynasty of Roman emperors Septuagesima - The ninth Sunday before Easter, the third before Lent known among the Greeks as 'Sunday of the Prodigal' Septuagint Version - The first translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, made into popular Greek before the Christian era Sepulchre, Holy - The tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death upon the Cross Seraphic Crown - Also known as the Seraphic Rosary. Brief history, general description of how one prays this chaplet Seraphim - A Hebrew masculine plural form, designates a special class of heavenly attendants of Yahweh's court Sergius and Bacchus - Soldiers, martyred in the Diocletian persecution in about 303. Universally venerated in the East Sergius I, Pope - Reigned 687-701 Sergius II, Pope - Reigned 844-847 Sergius III, Pope - Reigned 904-911 Sergius IV, Pope - Reigned 1009-1012 Serra, Junípero - Biography of the famed Franciscan priest, missionary to Mexico and California, who died in 1784 Servants of Mary (Order of Servites) - Order founded on the feast of the Assumption, 1233 when the Blessed Virgin appeared to seven noble Florentines Servia - A European kingdom in the northwestern part of the Balkan peninsula Servites, Order of - The fifth mendicant order, the objects of which are the sanctification of its members, preaching the Gospel, and the propagation of devotion to the Mother of God, with special reference to her sorrows Servus servorum Dei - 'Servant of the servants of God', a title given by the popes to themselves in documents of note Seton, Saint Elizabeth Ann - Biography of the founder of the Sisters of Charity in the United States Seven Deacons - The seven men elected by the whole company of the original Christian community at Jerusalem and ordained by the Apostles, their office being chiefly to look after the poor and the common agape Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, The - One of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after wakes up to find the world changed Severinus, Pope - Reigned May-August 640, Seville - Archdiocese in Spain Sext - Article on the midday office Sexton - One who guards the church edifice, its treasures, vestments, etc., and as an inferior minister attends to burials, bell-ringings and similar offices about a church Shakespeare, Religion of - Thesis regarding the faith of the bard Shamanism - A vague term used by explorers of Siberia in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to designate not a specific religion but a form of savage magic or science, by which physical nature was believed to be brought under the control of man Shem - Son of Noe Sheridan, Philip Henry - General, U.S. Army. Born at Albany, N.Y., U.S.A., 6 March, 1831; died at Nonquitt, Mass, 5 August, 1888 Shrines of Our Lady and the Saints in Great Britain and Ireland - Location and origins of shrines Shroud of Turin - A relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that it is the actual 'clean linen cloth' in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Jesus Christ Shrovetide - Some history behind Carnival Shuswap Indians - A tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, the most important of that group in British Columbia, formerly holding a large territory on middle and upper Thompson River, including Shuswap, Adams, and Quesnel Lakes Siam - Siam, 'the land of the White Elephant' or the country of the Muang Thai (the Free) Sibylline Oracles - The name given to certain collections of supposed prophecies, emanating from the sibyls or divinely inspired seeresses, which were widely circulated in antiquity Sicilian Vespers - The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 March, 1282, against the domination of Charles of Anjou Sicily - The largest island in the Mediterranean Sick, Anointing of the - A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill Siena - Archdiocese in Tuscany (Central Italy) Sign of the Cross - A term applied to various manual acts, liturgical or devotional in character, which have this at least in common: that by the gesture of tracing two lines intersecting at right angles they indicate symbolically the figure of Christ's cross Sikhism - The religion of a warlike sect of India, having its origin in the Punjab and its centre in the holy City of Amritsar, where their sacred books are preserved and worshipped Silence - All writers on the spiritual life uniformly recommend, nay, command under penalty of total failure, the practice of silence Silesia - The largest province of Prussia Silverius, Pope Saint - Son of Pope St. Hormisdas. Named pope while yet a subdeacon, to thwart the Monophysites. Exiled through a forgery of his political and religious enemies, died of starvation in prison, probably in 537 Silvia, Saint - The mother of St. Gregory the Great. She died in about 592 Simeon - The second son of Jacob by Lia and patronymic ancestor of the Jewish tribe bearing that name Simeon, Holy - The 'just and devout' man of Jerusalem who according to the narrative of St. Luke, greeted the infant Saviour on the occasion of His presentation in the Temple Simeon, Canticle of - The Canticle of Simeon found in Luke 2:29-32 Simeon Stylites the Elder, Saint - First and most famous of the hermits whose asceticism involved living atop a pillar. Died in 459 Simon the Apostle, Saint - Also known as Simon the Zealot Simon Magus - According to the testimony of St. Justin, Simon came from Gitta in the country of the Samaritans Simon Peter - Long article on his life Simon Stock, Saint - Biography of the English Carmelite, sixth general of the Order. Associated with the brown scapular. Died 1265 Simony - Usually defined 'a deliberate intention of buying or selling for a temporal price such things as are spiritual of annexed unto spirituals' Simplicius, Pope Saint - Reigned 468-483; date of birth unknown; died 10 March, 483 Sin - A moral evil Sinai - The mountain on which the Mosaic Law was given Sinaiticus, Codex - A Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, of the greatest antiquity and value; found on Mount Sinai, in St. Catherine's Monastery, by Constantine Tischendorf Sioux Indians - Provides information about their history, language, population, culture and religion Sirach, Book of - The longest of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible, and the last of the Sapiential writings in the Vulgate of the Old Testament Siricius, Pope Saint - Siricius condemned Jovinian, but this did not spare the pope from criticism by St. Jerome Sisinnius, Pope - Successor of John VII, he was consecrated probably 15 January, 708, and died after a brief pontificate of about three weeks; he was buried in St. Peter's Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati, Ohio - On 27 October, 1829, at the request of Bishop Fenwick of Cincinnati, several sisters from Mother Seton's community at Emmitsburg, Maryland, opened an orphanage, parochial school, and academy on Sycamore Street opposite the old cathedral, then occupying the present site of St. Xavier's Church and college Sistine Choir - With the building by Sixtus IV (1471-84) of the church for the celebration of all papal functions since known as the Sistine Chapel, the original schola cantorum and subsequent capella pontificia or capella papale, which still retains more or less of the guild character, becomes the capella sistina, or Sistine Choir Six Days of Creation - Signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of creation, as contained in the first chapter of Genesis Sixtus I, Pope Saint - Martyr, reigned for ten years in the very early part of the second century Sixtus II, Pope Saint - This is the St. Sixtus who is commemorated in the Eucharistic Prayer. Pope who was one of the first martyrs of the Valerian persecution, in 258 Sixtus III, Pope Saint - Reigned 432-440 Sixtus IV, Pope - Born near Abisola, 21 July, 1414; died 12 Aug., 1484 Sixtus V, Pope - Born at Grottamare near Montalto, 13 December, 1521; elected 24 April, 1585; crowned 1 May, 1585; died in the Quirinal, 27 August, 1590 Slander - The attributing to another of a fault of which one knows him to be innocent Slavery and Christianity - Discusses the history Slavery, Ethical Aspect of - In Greek and Roman civilization slavery on an extensive scale formed an essential element of the social structure; and consequently the ethical speculators, no less than the practical statesmen, regarded it as a just and indispensable institution Slavonic Language and Liturgy - Although the Latin holds the chief place among the liturgical languages in which the Mass is celebrated and the praise of God recited in the Divine Offices, yet the Slavonic language comes next to it among the languages widely used throughout the world in the liturgy of the Church Slavs, The - Customary name for all the Slavonic races Slavs in America - History of ethnic Slavs migrating to the U.S Sloth - One of the seven capital sins. In general it means disinclination to labour or exertion Smalkaldic League - A politico-religious alliance formally concluded on 27 Feb., 1531, at Smalkalden in Hesse-Nassau, among German Protestant princes and cities for their mutual defence Smyrna - The capital of the vilayet of Aïdin and the starting-point of several railways Snorri Sturluson - Historian, born at Hvammr, 1178; died 1241 Sobieski, John - Born at Olesko in 1629; died at Wilanow, 1696; son of James, Castellan of Cracow and descended by his mother from the heroic Zolkiewski, who died in battle at Cecora Social Contract, The - Includes contents and critique Socialism - A system of social and economic organization that would substitute state monopoly for private ownership of the sources of production and means of distribution Societies, Secret - A designation of which the exact meaning has varied at different times Society - Implies fellowship, company, and has always been conceived as signifying a human relation Society of Jesus, The - Comprehensive information about the past of the Jesuit order Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, The - An institution of religious women, taking perpetual vows and devoted to the work of education Sociology - The claims of sociology to a place in the hierarchy of sciences are subjected to varied controversy. It has been held that there is no distinct problem for a science of sociology, no feature of human society not already provided for in the accepted social sciences Socinianism - The body of doctrine held by one of the numerous Antitrinitarian sects to which the Reformation gave birth Socrates - Fourth-century Church historian Socrates - Greek philosopher (469-399 B.C.) Sodality - It would not be possible to give a definition making a clear distinction between the sodalities and other confraternities; consequently the development and history of the sodalities are the same as those of the religious confraternities Sodality (Confraternity) - A voluntary association of the faithful, established and guided by competent ecclesiastical authority for the promotion of special works of Christian charity or piety Sodom and Gomorrha - They were situated in 'the country about the Jordan' (Gen., xiii, 10); their exact location is unknown Soissons - Includes, with the exception of two hamlets, the entire Department of Aisne Solemnity - The word solemnity is here used to denote the amount of intrinsic or extrinsic pomp with which a feast is celebrated Solicitation - Technically in canon law the crime of making use of the Sacrament of Penance, directly or indirectly, for the purpose of drawing others into sins of lust Solomon - The second son of David by his wife Bathsheba, and the acknowledged favourite of his father Solomon, Psalms of - Eighteen apocryphal psalms, extant in Greek, probably translated from a Hebrew, or an Aramaic original, commonly assigned to the first century B.C Song, Religious - The general designation given to the numerous poetical and musical creations which have come into existence in the course of time and are used in connection with public Divine worship, but which are not included in the official liturgy on account of their more free and subjective character Son of God - Includes uses from the Old and New Testaments Son of Man - Several instances of its use are detailed Sophists - A group of Greek teachers who flourished at the end of the fifth century B.C Sophonias - The ninth of the twelve Minor Prophets of the Canon of the Old Testament; preached and wrote in the second half of the seventh century B.C Sorin, Edward - The founder of Notre Dame, Indiana; b. 6 Feb., 1814, at Ahuille, near Laval, France; d. 31 Oct., 1893, at Notre Dame, U.S.A Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the Seven - The object of these feats is the spiritual martyrdom of the Mother of God and her compassion with the sufferings of her Divine Son Soter and Caius, Saints - Popes, having their feast together on 22 April Soul - The question of the reality of the soul and its distinction from the body is among the most important problems of philosophy, for with it is bound up the doctrine of a future life Soul, Faculties of the - Article covers the meaning and classification South Carolina - One of the thirteen original colonies of the United States Southwell, Venerable Robert - Biography of the English poet, Jesuit, and martyr. He was hanged in 1595 Sozomen, Salaminius Hermias - One of the famous historians of the early Church, born at Bethelia, a small town near Gaza in Palestine Space - The idea of space is one of the most important in the philosophy of the material world; for centuries it has preoccupied and puzzled philosophers and psychologists Spain - This name properly signifies the whole peninsula which forms the south-western extremity of Europe. Since the political separation of Portugal, however, the name has gradually come to be restricted to the largest of the four political divisions of the Peninsula: (1) Spain; (2) Portugal; (3) the Republic of Andorra; (4) the British possession of Gibraltar, at the southern extremity Spallanzani - A distinguished eighteenth-century scientist, b. at Scadiano in Modena, Italy, 10 January, 1729; d. at Pavia, 12 February, 1799 Spanish-American Literature - The literature produced by the Spanish-speaking peoples of Mexico, Central America, Cuba and adjacent islands, and of South America with the notable exceptions of Brazil (whose speech is Portuguese) and the Guianas Spanish Armada, The - A fleet intended to invade England and to put an end to the long series of English aggressions against the colonies and possessions of the Spanish Crown Spanish Language and Literature - As a medium of literary expression Spanish asserted itself first in the twelfth century: it had been six or seven centuries in the process of evolution out of Latin Species - In scholastic terminology, species is the necessary determinant of every cognitive process Speculation - A term used with reference to business transactions to signify the investing of money at a risk of loss on the chance of unusual gain Spinoza, Benedict - Belonged to a family of Jewish merchants of moderate means, and was originally called Baruch. Born at Amsterdam, 24 Nov., 1632; died at The Hague, 21 Feb., 1677 Spire - A tapering construction in plan conical, pyramidal, octagonal, or hexagonal crowning a steeple or tower Spirit - Used in several different but allied senses: (1) as signifying a living, intelligent, incorporeal being, such as the soul; (2) as the fiery essence or breath (the Stoic pneuma) which was supposed to be the universal vital force; (3) as signifying some refined form of bodily substance, a fluid believed to act as a medium between mind and the grosser matter of the body Spirit, Holy - The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms an integral part of her teaching on the mystery of the Holy Trinity Spiritism - History and methods of Spiritism (here distinguished from Spiritualism) and the dangers inherent in its practice and beliefs Spiritual Direction - Personal guidance according to individual needs. Criticizes excesses at both ends of the spectrum: heavyhanded directors, and people who think that since they have the Holy Spirit they have no need of human help Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius - A short work composed by St. Ignatius of Loyola and written originally in Spanish Spiritualism - The term has been frequently used to denote the belief in the possibility of communication with disembodied spirits, and the various devices employed to realize this belief in practice Spoons, Apostle - A set of thirteen spoons, usually silver, the handles of which are adorned with representations of Our Lord (the Master spoon) and the twelve Apostles Sri Lanka - An island to the south-east of India and separated from it only by a chain of reefs and sand-banks called Adam's Bridge Stabat Mater - The opening words of two companion hymns, one of which (Stabat Mater Dolorosa) is in liturgical use, while the other (Stabat Mater Speciosa) is not Staff, Pastoral - The Pastoral Staff is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture, and which is used by these prelates in performing certain solemn functions Stained Glass - The popular name for the glass used in the making of coloured windows Stanislas Kostka, Saint - Polish Jesuit, died in 1568 at the age of 17, less than a year after entering the Society Stanislaus of Cracow, Saint - Bishop and martyr, d. 1079. The patron saint of Poland Stanza - An Italian word signifying room, chamber, apartment. In English the term is chiefly used for Raphael's celebrated Stanze in the Vatican Palace, four in number, the walls of which were frescoed by Raphael and his pupils State and Church - The Church and the State are both perfect societies, that is to say, each essentially aiming at a common good commensurate with the need of mankind at large and ultimate in a generic kind of life, and each juridically competent to provide all the necessary and sufficient means thereto State or Way - Stages in the spiritual life States of the Church - Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years (754-1870) acknowledged the pope as temporal ruler States, Papal - Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years (754-1870) acknowledged the pope as temporal ruler Station Days - Days on which in the early Church fast was observed until the Hour of None (between twelve and three o'clock), later of Sext (nine to twelve), as distinct from the strict observance of the fast day proper until Vespers (three to six) Stations of the Cross - Historical background on this devotion Statistics, Ecclesiastical - Includes a history of their keeping Statistics of Religions - Includes the definition and historical development, along with the status of religious bodies Stephen, Saint - On the deacon, and first Christian martyr. Stephen, Saint - First King of Hungary. Baptized at the age of 10 by St. Adalbert, and died in 1038 Stephen I, Pope Saint - Reigned 254-257 Stephen II, Pope - Reigned 752 Stephen (II) III, Pope - Unanimously elected in St. Mary Major's and consecrated on 26 March (or 3 April), 752; d. 26 April, 757 Stephen (III) IV, Pope - Born about 720; died 1 or 3 August, 772 Stephen (IV) V, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died 24 Jan., 817 Stephen (V) VI, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died in Sept., 891 Stephen (VI) VII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died about August, 897 Stephen (VII) VIII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died in February or March, 931 Stephen (VIII) IX, Pope - Date of birth unknown; he became pope about 14 July, 939, and died about the end of Oct., 942 Stephen (IX) X, Pope - Born probably about the beginning of the eleventh century; died at Florence, 29 March, 1058 Stigmata, Mystical - Their existence is so well established historically that, as a general thing, they are no longer disputed by unbelievers, who now seek only to explain them naturally Stipend - A fixed pay, salary; retribution for work done; the income of an ecclesiastical living Stockholm - The capital of the Kingdom of Sweden, situated on Lake Maelar at the spot where it opens into the Saltsjoe Stoics and Stoic Philosophy - The Stoic School was founded in 322 B.C. by Zeno of Cittium and existed until the closing of the Athenian schools (A.D. 429) Stole - A liturgical vestment composed of a strip of material from two to four inches wide and about eighty inches long Stones, Precious, in the Bible - Stones remarkable for their colour, brilliancy, or rarity Stoning in Scripture - At first an expression of popular fury analogous to 'lynching', later came to be a natural and legally recognized method of execution Stoup - Vessels intended for the use of holy water Stradivari, Antonio - Cremonese violin-maker, b. in 1649 or 1650; d. at Cremona, 18 or 19 Dec., 1737 Sturluson, Snorri - Historian, born at Hvammr, 1178; died 1241 Stylites - Solitaries who, taking up their abode upon the tops of a pillar (stylos), chose to spend their days amid the restraints thus entailed and in the exercise of other forms of asceticism. This practice may be regarded as the climax of a tendency which became very pronounced in Eastern lands in the latter part of the fourth century Suárez, Francisco - Article on his life, teachings and works, by A. Perez Goyena Subdeacon - The subdiaconate is the lowest of the sacred or major orders in the Latin Church. It is defined as the power by which one ordained as a subdeacon may carry the chalice with wine to the altar, prepare the necessaries for the Eucharist, and read the Epistles before the people Subiaco - A city in the Province of Rome, twenty-five miles from Tivoli, received its name from the artificial lakes of the villa of Nero and is renowned for its sacred grotto (Sagro Speco), the Abbey of St. Scholastica, and the archiepiscopal residence and Church of St. Andrew, which crowns the hill Substance - A genus supremum, cannot strictly be defined by an analysis into genus and specific difference; yet a survey of the universe at large will enable us to form without difficulty an accurate idea of substance Suburbicarian Dioceses - A name applied to the dioceses nearest Rome, viz. Albano, Frascati (Tusculum), Palestrina, Sabina, Ostia and Velletri, Porto and S. Rufina, the bishops of which form the order of cardinal bishops Suger - Abbot of St-Denis, statesman and historian, b. probably at or near St-Denis, about 1081; d. there, 13 Jan., 1151 Suicide - The act of one who causes his own death, either by positively destroying his own life, as by inflicting on himself a mortal wound or injury, or by omitting to do what is necessary to escape death, as by refusing to leave a burning house Summæ - Compendiums of theology, philosophy, and canon law which were used both as textbooks in the schools and as books of reference during the Middle Ages Sunday - Sunday (Day of the Sun), as the name of the first day of the week, is derived from Egyptian astrology Supernatural Adoption - The adoption of man by God in virtue of which we become His sons and heirs Supernatural Gift - Something conferred on nature that is above all the powers (vires) of created nature Supernatural Order - The ensemble of effects exceeding the powers of the created universe and gratuitously produced by God for the purpose of raising the rational creature above its native sphere to a God-like life and destiny Superstition - From supersisto, 'to stand in terror of the deity' Supper, The Last - The Evangelists and critics generally agree that the Last Supper was on a Thursday, that Christ suffered and died on Friday, and that He arose from the dead on Sunday Suppression of Monasteries in England - From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be regarded as one of the great events of the sixteenth century Surplice - A large-sleeved tunic of half-length, made of fine linen or cotton, and worn by all the clergy Susanna and Tiburtius, Saints - Roman martyrs, feast 11 August Suso, Blessed Henry - Biography of this German Dominican mystic, d. 1366 Sweden - The largest of the three Scandinavian countries and the eastern half of the Scandinavian peninsula Swedenborgians - The believers in the religious doctrines taught by Emanuel Swedenborg. As an organized body they do not call themselves Swedenborgians, which seems to assert the human origin of their religion, but wish to be known as the 'Church of the New Jerusalem', or 'New Church', claiming for it Divine Authorship and promulgation through human instrumentality Swithin, Saint - Bishop of Winchester (d. 862). One of the two trusted counsellors of Egbert, King of the West Saxons Switzerland - A confederation in the central part of Western Europe, made up of twenty-two cantons, three of which are divided into half-cantons Syllabus - The name given to two series of propositions containing modern religious errors condemned respectively by Pius IX (1864) and Pius X (1907) Sylvester I, Pope Saint - In office for 21 years, while Constantine was emperor. St. Sylvester died in 335 Sylvester II - Pope (999-1003) Sylvia, Saint - The mother of St. Gregory the Great. She died in about 592 Symbolism - The investing of outward things or actions with an inner meaning, more especially for the expression of religious ideas Symmachus, Pope Saint - Lengthy article on this pope, who died in 514 Synagogue - The place of assemblage of the Jews. This article will treat of the name, origin, history, organization, liturgy and building of the synagogue Synaxis - Means gathering, assembly, reunion. It is exactly equivalent to the Latin collecta (from colligere), and corresponds to synagogue (synagoge), the place of reunion Syncretism - An explanation is given by Plutarch in a small work on brotherly love ('Opera Moralia', ed. Reiske, VII, 910). He there tells how the Cretans were often engaged in quarrels among themselves, but became immediately reconciled when an external enemy approached Synderesis - Synderesis, or more correctly synteresis, is a term used by the Scholastic theologians to signify the habitual knowledge of the universal practical principles of moral action Synod - A general term for ecclesiastical gatherings under hierarchical authority, for the discussion and decision of matters relating to faith, morals, or discipline. It corresponds to the Latin word concilium Synoptics - The name given since Griesbach's time (about 1790) to the first three canonical Gospels Syracuse - The Diocese of Syracuse, in the State of New York Syria - A country in Western Asia, which in modern times comprises all that region bounded on the north by the highlands of the Taurus, on the south by Egypt, on the east by Mesopotamia and the Arabia Desert, and on the west by the Mediterranean Syriac Language and Literature - Syriac is the important branch of the group of Semitic languages known as Aramaic Syrian Rite, East - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar who have separated from them Syrian Rite, West - The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin simply the old rite of Antioch in the Syriac language Syro-Chaldaic Rite - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar who have separated from them Syro-Jacobite Liturgy - The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin simply the old rite of Antioch in the Syriac language Syro-Malabar Church - An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent from the Apostle St. Thomas Syro-Malabar Rite - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar who have separated from them